authority, responsibility and accountability in management

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27 aprilie 2019

authority, responsibility and accountability in management

They really go hand in hand with each other. If superior gave authority to the subordinate, then the subordinate’s responsibility has been increasing simultaneously. To be clear, responsibility is essential in organizations. 4. It then in turn lets people feel like you can be counted on. Authority is the right or power assigned to an executive or a manager in order to achieve certain organizational objectives. Authority is one of the thickest semantic jungles in management literature. According to this theory, authority originates at the top of an organization and flows downward through the process of delegation. The person accepting responsibility is accountable for the performance of assigned duties. This is accountability. 3. Authority is the genesis of organizational framework. According to Urwick, formal authority is conferred by organization; technical authority is implicit in a special knowledge or skill whereas personal authority is conferred by superiority or popularity. Authority defines the decisions you can make but does not mention the results that you have to achieve, whereas responsibility addresses the results you must accomplish, but does not mention the decisions that you need to make in order to reach those results. The power- centres need not necessarily be located at the position of higher authority. The subordinates accept the authority if the advantages to be derived by its acceptance exceed the disadvantages resulting from its refusal. Authority is the right or power assigned to an individual, whereas Accountability is the ability to handle authority from all aspects. ‘Authority’ means ‘Legal or rightful power, a right to command or to act’. Responsibility is in the form of a continuing obligation. Remember, that authority focuses on processes and responsibility focuses on outcomes. The subordinates give obedience to the managers because they visualize the following advantages: (b) Contribution in attaining the objectives of the enterprise. If a sub-ordinate is asked to control the operation of a machine, the duty is in terms of function. 5. Workers should feel responsible … There must be mutual cooperation and mutual trust between officers and employees of the enterprise for the successful use of authority. Thus, here the worker is using bell without formal authority. An accountability is a contracted output. Accountability is a management-control process. The supporters of this view assert that an individual derives authority because of his personal qualities and technical competence. Thus, it can be said that a man cannot reduce his responsibilities by delegation, he also cannot reduce his accountability to higher authority through delegating. On the other hand, answerability for the consequence of the delegated task. In other words, authority is “a superior’s capacity on the basis of his formal position, to make decisions affecting the behavior of subordinates”. Responding to a person’s actions lets the person know whether he’s on target or whether he needs to make a correction. According to Simon, “Authority may be defined as the power to make decisions which guide the actions of others”. But it is not really so. A very important condition of the successful use of authority is that the employees must have an interest in the work for which they are responsible. The use of authority by a manager over his sub-ordinates is restricted by the following factors: A manager’s authority is restricted by the enterprise goals, objectives, politics, programmes and procedures etc. Nobody wants to lose power because power can be used in desirable or undesirable ways. In a way through exercising the control the superior is demanding accountability from subordinates. Disclaimer 8. To carry out responsibility, a manager requires adequate authority or power. Applied to the managerial jobs, the power of the superior to command the subordinate to act or not to act in a particular manner, is called the ‘authority’. ADVERTISEMENTS: Responsibility, Power and Accountability in Organization! The meaning of authority is not simple and clear. It applies to situations of emergency or crisis where action is to be taken immediately. Copyright 10. It is what one is expected to do in order to carry out his prescribed job. Therefore, the authority is known as formal authority. In other words, the delegant must determine clearly the task or duty that is assigned to the delegate. Every employee is answerable to his superior for the accomplishment of the task assigned to him. If an individual reports to two principles on the same responsibility, confusion and friction will inevitably result. -Henry Fayol, ii. The former people have an authority. Responsibility and accountability are not synonyms but are two terms. These questions are to be answered by the individual before he satisfies himself and his superiors that he has accomplished the job. Thus, a person may get his order accepted not because he is having any formal authority, but because of his personal qualities. 1. Therefore, authority goes downward and makes everyone accountable for the duties assigned. On the basis of above definitions, the following features of authority can be identified: 1. Thus, responsibility has these elements i.e., it is applied to a sub­ordinate, it essence is obligation to perform work and it arises out of superior and sub-ordinate relationship. The subordinates are aware of the fact that if they disregard the formal authority they will be punished according to the rules and regulations of the company. A manager cannot take decision about unlimited number of sub-ordinates. This theory was first formulated by Mary Parker Follett and later popularized by Chester Barnard and Simon. By acting responsibly people will learn to trust that you will do what you say you agree to. Thus, it is stated that authority should go with responsibility. 6. Accountability neither can be shared nor delegated. Usually, authority flows downwards whereas accountability flow upwards. By contrast, responsibility is more values driven, coming from within. In the military, the concept of accountability is used to indicate the duty and an officer to maintain accurate records and to safeguard public property and funds. 1. The latter are subordinates to the former. He is given a right to command and to exercise control over those who are responsible for the execution of policies and programmes of the enterprise. In an organisation, responsibility is the duty as per the guidelines issued. It is also related with decision-making. People use the word responsibility in different senses as referring to a duty, an activity or an authority. It may be a continuing obligation on confined to the performance of a single person. A sales manager cannot ask his sales persons to sell products at a higher price in a highly competitive market. Davis and Filley say “Authority consists principally of the rights to decide and command”. Authority and responsibility are closely related. The accountability arises only because there is an authority, the aim of which is to get the decision carried out with fuller responsibility. Responsibility may be continuing or it may terminate with the accomplishment of a single action. Authority seems to flow from the superiors to the subordinates. The authority which a committee is likely to exercise largely depends on the authority of the various individuals comprising it, e.g., budget committee, workers committee, etc. Authority denotes granting of power. Responsibility is assigned whereas accountability is accepted. The person holding the position has to perform the duty assigned. The three terms, Authority, Responsibility and Accountability are inter-related. If they are not interested in their work, it may be very difficult for the higher officers to implement their authority. The basic type of authority is line, staff, functional and committee. The essence of authority is obligation. Responsibility is in the form of a continuing obligation. It is an absolute and cannot be delegated. This power is based on belief that the influencer has some relevant expertise or special knowledge that the influence does not have. Accountability is most meaningful if standards for performances are predetermined and if they are fully understood and accepted by the subordinates. Responsibility without authority is as meaningless as authority without responsibility. Thus, formal authority always flows from top to bottom. The origin of responsibility is the assigned authority. One has to answer about his work and conduct. (Henri Fayol) Similarly, Authority is the right to act or command others to act towards the attainment of organizational goals.(S.P. A man will still be accountable directly to his superior for the authority he has delegated and for the tasks he has assigned to his subordinates. Both staff and functional authorities are subordinate to line authority. This is known as functional authority. Formal authority is basic to managerial job. Accountability, however, applies to both, the obligation to perform work and to exercise authority. ‘Authority’ means ‘Legal or rightful power, a right to command or to act’. According to George R. Terry—”Authority is official and legal right to command action by others and to enforce compliance.— In this way authority is exercised”—(i) by making decision, and (ii) by seeing that they are carried out through, (a) persuasion, (b) sanctions, (c) requests, and (d) even coercion, constraint or force. Uploader Agreement. So accountability is the personal answerability for results. He is supposed to complete the job as per the expectations and inform his superior accordingly. 8. It exists when an influencer acknowledge that the influencer is lawfully entitled to exert influence. When authority is delegated then some responsibility for getting the assigned task is also fixed. Committees are appointed for special purposes and usually on an adhoc basis. Accountability is the liability created for the use of authority.

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